Medical Treatment
Hormonal Procedure
Chemo Prevention
Define Prostate Cancer
Anatomy & Physiology
of Prostate
Common symptoms
Hormonal Procedure Therapy
All prostate cells are stimulated by the male hormone called testosterone. Some types of prostate cancer cells actually require high doses of this hormone. By eliminating testosterone, hormonal therapy can temporarily slow down the growth of the prostate cancer cells but not stop it. The testicles produce 95% of a man's testosterone
Radical prostatectomy
A radical prostatectomy is an operation to remove the prostate gland and some of the tissue around it. It is done to remove prostate cancer. This operation may be done by open surgery or by laparoscopic surgery through small incisions or with the help of robot.

Laparoscopic surgery is most often done by hand. A few doctors now do it by guiding robotic arms that hold the surgery tools. This is called robot-assisted prostatectomy.
Radiation therapy
Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer. The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.

There is an increased risk of bladder cancer and/or rectal cancer in men treated with radiation therapy.

Impotence and urinary problems may occur in men treated with radiation therapy
Hormone therapy
Hormone therapy is a cancer treatment that removes hormones or blocks their action and stops cancer cells from growing. Hormones are substances produced by glands in the body and circulated in the bloodstream. In prostate cancer, male sex hormones can cause prostate cancer to grow. Drugs, surgery, or other hormones are used to reduce the production of male hormones or block them from working.
Cryosurgery is a treatment that uses an instrument to freeze and destroy prostate cancer cells. This type of treatment is also called cryotherapy.

Impotence and leakage of urine from the bladder or stool from the rectum may occur in men treated with cryosurgery.
Biologic therapy
Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses the patient’s immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the body’s natural defenses against cancer. This type of cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy.
High-intensity focused ultrasound
High-intensity focused ultrasound is a treatment that uses ultrasound (high-energy sound waves) to destroy cancer cells. To treat prostate cancer, an endorectal probe is used to make the sound waves
Proton beam radiation therapy
Proton beam radiation therapy is a type of high-energy, external radiation therapy that targets tumors with streams of protons (small, positively charged particles). This type of radiation therapy is being studied in the treatment of prostate cancer.
Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed directly into bladder lumen, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy). The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.
External Radiation Treatment   [ERT]
The most common prostate cancer treatment, radiation therapy’s oldest form is electron beam; newer versions are intensity modulated [IMRT], 3D-CRT, IGRT and proton beam therapy. Experimental treatment uses neutron beams.
Digital Rectal Exam
In a digital rectal exam (DRE), a doctor inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into a man's rectum in order to feel the prostate. If the doctor finds a roughness and irregular uneveness to the tissue, prostate cancer might be suspected. An enlarged prostate that is not cancerous will likely still feel smooth.

The DRE cannot diagnose prostate cancer. It is used to examine the size and surface of the prostate to determine if further investigation is needed. Experts recommend that all men over the age of 50 have a DRE yearly along with a PSA test
MRI Scan
A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is a computerized picture made by magnetic fields that can show detailed, cross-sectional images of the inner body. MRI scans can create a clear picture of the prostate gland.
Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves that bounce off organs and body structures and produce a computerized image. Ultrasound most often is performed by passing a sensor over the surface of the body.

The prostate can be examined through a type of ultrasound called transrectal ultrasonography. In this exam, a probe is inserted into the rectum that carries the sound waves to the nearby prostate, producing a better and accurate image.
CT Scan
A CT (computed tomography) scan is a sophisticated x-ray producedure that uses a computer and rotating x-ray beams to produce images of soft tissue, bone, and blood vessels. Areas of dense tissue, such as tumors, can be seen better than with one-dimensional x-rays.
A biopsy is a technique in which a small sample of tissue is taken through a fine needle and examined under a microscope to see if cells are malignant . Biopsy is a highly accurate way to tell if prostate cancer is present.

The way in which the biopsy is performed varies among doctors. Before having a biopsy, a man will want to ask his doctor about:

• What the procedure will involve
• Whether medication can be given to block any discomfort
• Any risks associated with the biopsy procedure
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