Medical Treatment
Hormonal Procedure
Chemo Prevention
Define Prostate Cancer
Anatomy & Physiology
of Prostate
Common symptoms
Prostate Cancer Treatment Options
treatment options for prostate cancer
The treatment options for prostate cancer depend mainly on the type and grade of cancer, your age, your overall health and whether the tumor has spread. For tumors that are still inside the prostate, a surgery called radical prostatectomy is common treatment option.

Another successful control of prostatic cancer is hormonal therapy and Watchful waiting. The hormonal therapy can be combined with resection or chanelling and chemotherapy, brachy therapy, cryo therapy, thermo therapy or HIFU

Usually, tumors that have grown beyond the edge of the prostate can't be cured with either radiation or surgery. They can be treated with hormones that slow the cancer's growth.
radical prostatectomy
Radical prostatectomy is a surgery to remove the whole prostate gland and the nearby lymph nodes. After the prostate gland is taken out through an incision, a catheter (a narrow rubber tube) is put through the penis into the bladder to carry urine out of the body until the area heals. If the prostate margines are very near external sphincter, then there are chances of loss of urinary control which may recover in few months time. Till that time patient might have to use adult diapers or external device for the quality of life.

Other kinds of prostate surgery are less invasive and have different risks and recovery rates. Your doctor will help to decide which type of surgery is the best option for you. Laparoscopic surgery helps the surgeon see inside your body using a thin tube with a tiny camera attached to it. Small cuts are made near the tumor site, and thin tools are used to remove the tumor and surrounding tissue. Same procedure is also possible with help of robotic arms to assist in this kind of surgery. The doctor operates the robot arm from a computer, even from different locations or countries.

Your doctor will talk to you about the kind of anesthesia used during surgery. You may be given general anesthesia, which puts you into a sleep-like state. Or an epidural or spinal anesthesia may be given instead. This kind of anesthesia blocks nerve routes from the spine and numbs the area.
risks and benefits of radical prostatectomy
If you're young and in good health, the short-term risks of this surgery are low. The hospital stay is usually 2 to 3 days, with the catheter left in place for 2 to 3 weeks. You're usually able to go back to work in about 1 month. You shouldn't have severe pain with this surgery. Most men regain bladder control a few weeks to several months after the surgery.

The main advantage of surgery is that it offers the most certain treatment. That is, if all of the cancer is removed during surgery, you are probably cured. Also, the surgery provides your doctor with accurate information about how advanced your cancer is, since the nearby lymph nodes are taken out along with the tumor.

Surgery does have risks. The main risks of radical prostatectomy are incontinence (loss of bladder control) and impotence (loss of the ability to get or keep an erection long enough to have sex). Most bladder and impotence problems improve with time.

Fortunately, only a very low percentage of men have severe incontinence after radical prostatectomy. Up to 35% of men have some accidental leakage of urine during heavy lifting, coughing or laughing. The chance of impotence (erectile dysfunction) is lower if the surgeon is able to avoid cutting the nerves. This may not be possible if the tumor is large. Your age and degree of sexual function before the surgery are also important factors. If you're under 50 years old when you have this surgery, you're likely to regain sexual function. If you're older than 70, you're more likely to lose sexual function. Remember, even if the nerves are cut, feeling in your penis and orgasms remain normal. Only the ability to get a rigid penis for sexual intercourse is lost. However, there are medicines and devices that can help make the penis rigid.

You could lose a lot of blood during this surgery. Before the surgery, you might want to save about 2 units of your own blood in case you need a transfusion.
About radiation therapy and its risks and benefits
There are 2 types of radiation therapy. In one type, called external (beam) radiation therapy, radiation is given from a machine like an x-ray machine. In another type -- internal radiation therapy -- radioactive pellets (called "seeds") are injected into the prostate gland. This is sometimes called seed therapy or brachytherapy (say: "brake-ee-ther-uh-pee"). Both types have about the same results in curing prostate cancer.

The external beam radiation therapy is usually only takes about 10 minutes, but it is given 5 days a week over 6 to 8 weeks. Some people might find this time-consuming. However, you don't need any anesthesia for this kind of treatment. The side effects are milder than the side effects that can occur with seed therapy. However, seed therapy can be done with just one hospital visit. For seed therapy, you’ll need to have anesthesia for a few minutes, but you should be able to go home right after the treatment. In seed therapy, higher doses of radiation can be put right into the cancer. You may feel more discomfort after this treatment.

Older studies show that about one half of patients become impotent within 5 years of having radiation therapy but newer forms of radiation may have different outcomes. Many men feel very tired at the end of the treatment period. About 15% to 30% of men who have radiation therapy have side effects like urinary burning, urinary bleeding, frequent urination, rectal bleeding, rectal discomfort or diarrhea during or shortly after the treatment. Erectile dysfunction (impotence) is a common side effect which often gets worse over time. More serious complications are rare. However, a degree of uncertainty goes along with radiation treatment. Since the prostate gland and the lymph nodes are not taken out, your doctor can't tell the exact size of the tumor. The cancer could come back many years after radiation treatment
purpose of hormone therapy and Its side effects
The purpose of hormone therapy is to lower the level of male hormones, called androgens, which are produced mostly in the testicles. Androgens, such as testosterone, help the prostate tumor grow. Shots or pills can be given over a period of several months, or the testicles can be surgically removed. Once the testosterone is out of your body, the prostate cancer usually shrinks and new growth slows down. Hormone treatments are often used in combination with other kinds of prostate cancer treatments.

Hormone therapy does have side effects. Some of the more serious side effects include loss of sex drive, painful enlargment of breasts, weakened bones, erectile dysfunction, fatigue and osteoporosis.

Hormone treatments are also used in patients with cancer that has spread beyond the prostate gland. While prostate cancer that has spread usually responds to 1 or 2 years of hormone therapy, it does not cure the disease and most tumors eventually begin to grow again. Once this happens, the treatment goal is to control symptoms. No current treatment can cure prostate cancer once hormone therapy stops working. Recently however, chemotherapy and / or immuno therapy has been shown to help some people with advanced prostate cancer live longer.
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